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Geographical & Tribal Names

* English name is primarily based on the OMACL version (tr. Shumway), but names from the Everyman's Library version (tr. Margaret Armour) was also supplied in some instances. The Middle High German text listed is primarily Ms. B, though some references are made to Ms. C and obtained through the MHDBDB database.
Even though both the English texts are prose translation (thus rendering the stanza number rather useless), the notation used for text citation such as 39: 2379 indicates Adventure 39, stanza 2379, and should match the line numbering found on Ms. B. The list excludes places of manufacture, namely, Araby, Azagouc, Arras, Libya, Morocco, Nineveh, and Zazamanc.

Names of Cities, etc.



Alzei
Alzey(e) [G.]; Alzeye [MHG];

Alzey is a well-known town in Rhine 18 mi. southwest of Mainz. Perhaps 12 mi. or so northwest of Worms.
(1:9,) Map: B3



Austria
Österreich [G.]; Ôsterrîche|Ôsterlant [MHG];

Country west of Bavaria. Passau is near the border. Going down the Danube through Austria takes you to Etzel's capital.
(22:1336, 27:1714 (22:1341)) Map: C4-E4



Bavarian land
Bayern [G.]; Beier, Beyer, Peyer [MHG];

Land which the Burgond party passes, killing the ferryman which ignites into battle with its ruler Gelpfrat and his brother Else, a margrave (ruler of these marches).
(25:1531,26:1586-1626) Map: C3-D3



Bechelaren
Bechlarn [G.]; Bechelâren [MHG];

The margraviate goverened by Rudeger. His wife Gotelind and his daughter resides here. Both Kriemhild's and Gunther's parties pass here before reaching Etzel's court and received the Margrave's hospitality. Bechelaren, or Pechlarn[Pöchlarn], lies at the junction of the Erlach with the Danube.
(20:, numerous) Map: E4



Berne
Bern(e) [G.]; Berne [MHG];

Country which Dietrich once ruled as king.
(numerous) Map: C5



Burgundy
Burgunden Land [G.]; Burgonde(n) (lant) [MHG];

The kingdom co-ruled by the brothers Gunther, Giselher, and Gernot; also where their sister Kriemhlild was born and raised. Their queen mother Uta is alive but Dankrat her husband is passed away. Worms is its capital.
(138 times) Map: (C3?)



Danube
Donau, die [G.]; Tuonouwe [MHG];

Danube ("Die Donau" in German). Kriemhild's party travel along the river through Vergen(1291), Passau(1295), Tulne(1341), etc. The Burgond Party also reached its shore, and continued from Bechlaren along the river to the Hunnish Land.
(20:1288; 21:1291,95; 1320,29,41; 25:1525;27:1712) Map: B4-F4-



Denmark
Dänemark [G.]; Tenelant, Tenelender, Tenemarke, Tenen [MHG];

In the first half, it is the kingdom of Liudegast who tried to invade the Burgond land. In the latter half, it is the native land of Duke Hawart, a guest at Etzel's court.
(4:140-: 5:298-31222:1345.31:1877) Map: Northwards beyond C1, D1



Eastern Frankland
Öst-Franken [G.]; Ôstervranken [MHG];

"Eastern Frankland", or East Franconia region to the east of the Spessart forest, including the towns of Fulda, Wurzburg and Barnberg. Gunther's party passed here then went onto the Main River, thence to Swanfeld, then to Bavaria.
(25:1524-5) Map: C2-C3?



Efferding
Eferding [G.]; Everdingen [MHG];

The present Eferding [A-4070] a town on the Danube, about thirteen miles west of Linz
(21:1302) Map: D4



Elbe
Elbe, die [G.]; Elbe [MHG];

The Elbe. Merely used in the expression"from the Elbe to the ocean".
(20:1244) Map: (C1-D3)



Enns
Enns, die [G.]; Ense [MHG];

The Ens river, a tributary of the Danube (1300). An encampment was pitched up here where Rudeger accomodated Kriemhild and her party (1304). It crosses the Donau about 10 mi. downstream from the city of Linz.
(21:1301, 1304) Map: E4



Etzelburg
Etzelburg [G.]; Etzelnburc [MHG];

Etzel's capital. Later it came to be identified with the old German-speaking quarter of Budapest (right bank of Danube) called Buda (= Ofen [Ger.] meaning"oven"). Buda(Ofen [G.]) and Óbuda (Alt-Ofen[G.]) on the right bank and Pest on the left bank were merged to form Budapest in 1873. (22:1379)

    The history of Budapest is quite old. Rome attempted to subjugate Panonia from around 35 B.C., establishing a town called Aquinum (which later served as the chief town of the province of Panonia). In 124 A.D., during the reign of Hadrian, the town's status was raised to that of the municipium, and in 194 A.D., during the reign of Septimius Severus, it was recognized as colonia.
    It seems a historically factual to say that the Huns led by Attila employed Budapest as their headquarters (ca. 452 A.D.), on authority of the oldest historical work of Hungary, the Gesta Hungarorum by one Anonymus (ca. 1200). Though the codex refers to this Hunnish base as "Sicambria" from its geography one can identify this to be Aquinum/Budapest.
    The same work also asserts that the Hungarians are descended from Scythians and are the progeny of Magog (the son of Japeth; a figure who appear in the Book of Genesis), elaborating furthermore that the name of their people, the Magyar, is derived from Magog.
    According to Anonymus, Attila too is a descendant of Magog and Japeth, who expelled the Romans from Panonia and erected the capital city of Buda "which is now called in the Hungarian language Budavar and by the Germans as Ecilburg" (source: Martyn Rady ""Recollecting Attila").
    Many years later, Almus [Álmos] (ca. 860-895) who claimed to be of the royal bloodline of Attila appeared and led the Hungarian people on a march towards Panonia, a land of lore. However, he dies in the middle of his quest, and the legacy is passed on to his son, Arpad[Árpád](ca. 915-949), who finally succeeded in entering Panonia(Hungary) and conquering Ecilburg/Etzelburg. Marvelled by the stone structures of the city, Arpad is said to have occupied the reputed palace of Attila and held revelry for days on end to celebrate his victory.
    Since Anonymus relied mostly on Ostrogothic sources (who were on terms of alliance with the Huns), he apparently knew only the more pleasant side of Attila. But gradually, accounts from France and Italy who were victimized by Attila gradually began to penetrate into Hungary, so that some of his atrocities became known.
    Consequently, in 1280, one Simon of Keza/Kezai wrote (perhaps by commission) a revised Gesta Hungarorum which describes Attila's line as having died out, making it now impossible for the ducal house of Almus and Arpad to be related to Attila by blood.

    Others theorize Etzelburg is none other than Gran(Estergom). In Ms. C.,"Etzeln bourg" (Etzel's citadel) occurs instead of this being used as the proper name of the city.

Esztergom
Gran
Gran [G.]; Gran [MHG];

Now Esztergom, on the right bank of the Danube opposite the influx of the Gran, 24 mi. northwest of Budapest. It once used to be a royal free city. Here, Swemmel and Werbel, the gleemen who delivered the invitation to the Burgonds, were both received by Etzel. It is curious to note that in the Thidrekssaga, the place of the decisive battled is called"Gransport (Gronsport)" — perhaps the"port of Gran" — although in MHG poetry the battle is set in Raben (usu. interpretted to be the port town of Ravenna, Italy).
(24:1497)




Heimburg
Heimburg (=Hainburg) [G.]; Heimburc [MHG];

lies on the Danube near the Hungarian border; the supposed birthtown of Etzel.
(22:1376) Map: E4



Hesse
Hessen [G.]; Hessen [MHG];

A country the Burgonds passed through when they counterstruck against Saxony.
(4:176) Map: (D3?)



Hungary
Ungarn [G.]; Ungerlande [MHG];

Land governed by Bloedel (brother of Etzel)
(22:1373) Map: E5-G4



Inn
Inn, der [G.]; In [MHG];

Austrian river. The town of Passau is on the confluence of this river and the Rhine. Innsbruck means "the bridge over the Inn"
(21:1295) Map: (D4)



Isenland, Issland[Everyman's]
; Isenland[Island] [G.]; Îslant [MHG];

Nation far out at sea (li 326), whose queen is Brunhild. When she marries Gunther, the nation is left to the stewardship of her"nearest kin". It's capital is Isenstein. The name resembles Iceland, but some suggest an island nation in the Ijsselmeer (Zuider Zee) in the Netherlands ( Map: B1).
(6:title,7:418,9:550, 10:580,607)



Isenstein
Isenstein [G.]; Îsenstein(e) [MHG];

The city where lies Brunhild's castle, i.e., the capital of Isenland/Issland. In the Thidrekssaga, the city is called Seegard.
(6:382-4, 7:476)



Kiev (land of)
Kiew [G.]; Kiewen [MHG];

Kief, city of Ukraine.
(22:1340) Map: —



Loche
Loche [Lochheim] [G.]; Lôche [MHG];

Place where Hagen sunk the Nibelungen treasure in the Rhine. According to Piper, is the modern "Locheim [Lochheim]", a hamlet in theRhine province. [between Biebesheim(D-64584) und Gernsheim(D-64579 ) about 20km NNW of Worms]
(19:1137) Map: C3 (see enlarged view)


Lorsch
(Lorse)
Lorse [Lorsch] [G.]; (Lôrse) [MHG];

Place of a monastery, near where Hagen sunk the Nibelungen gold [?] ; this geographic name only occurs in Manuscript C, where"loche" is construed as a common noun meaning"a hole" by/on the Rhine, instead of Loche, a village. Lôrse here is thought to be Lorsch (D-64653), about 16km east of Worms.
(C19:1158-64) Map: C3(see enlarged view)



Main
Main, der [G.]; Meune [MHG];

A tributary of the Rhine. The Burgonds meet it after leaving East Frankenland.
(25:1524)



Mautern
Mautern (an der Donau) [G.]; Mûtâren [MHG];

A town[A-2852 ] towards the interior of Austria than Medelick, etc; situated at the influx of the Flanitz, opposite Stein[A-3500] in Lower Austria.
(21:1329) Map: E4



Medelick
Medelicke [Melk] [G.]; Medelicke [MHG];

modern Molk, or Melk, [ A-3390 ] a town on the Danube near the influx of the Bilach. It lies at the foot of a granite cliff on which stands a famous Benedictine abbey.
(21:1328) Map: (E4)



Metz
Metz [G.]; Metze [MHG];

Domain governed by Ortwin (Hagen's nephew) [Metz is in the Lorraine region, now part of France.] (MS. C has Mezzin(=Meizzen)]
(1:9,11, 3:81,116, 119, 20:1184, etc., 8 times) Map: B3



Misenburg
Misenburg [G.]; Misenburc [MHG];

Town in between Heimburg and Etzelnburg. "Misenburg" is the modern Wieselburg [now Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary] on the Danube, twenty-one miles southeast of Pressburg[now Bratislava, Slovakia].
(22:1377) Map: E4(east edge)



Moering
Moeringen [G.]; Moeringen [MHG];

"Moering" (M.H.G."Moeringen") now Großmehring lies 5 mi. east of Ingolstadt and about 7 mi. west of Pförring along the Danube. In the Thidreksaga we are told that the mermaids were bathing in a body of water called"Moere", whereas in our poem they bathe in a spring.
(26:1591) Map: C4 (NE corner)



Netherlands
Niederland [G.]; Niderlande(n), Niderlant [MHG];

Land where Siegfried is prince, ruled by his father King Siegemund next to whom is Queen Siegelind. Kriemhild comes here as a bride and queen consort. Since the historical "Niederland" (Netherlands) cover the Low Countries (the present Holland, Belgium, Luxemburg) and some parts of France, I adjusted the label accordingly.
(2:20, 11:690-723, 12:740-, etc., ) Map: A2-B1



Norway
Norweg [G.]; Norwaege [MHG];

Land of the dwarves (the Nibelungs), where Siegfried stirred another qaurrel with the dwarves (before enlisting them to his service).
(12:739) Map: —



Odenwald
Odenwald [G.]; Waskenwalt [MHG];

-> Waskenwald (forest of Wasken/Vosges)
() Map: B4



Passau
Passau [G.]; Pazzouwe [MHG];

Town governed by Bishop Pilgerin; on the confluence of the Inn and Donau at the German-Austrian border. Pilgerin's niece Kriemhild (1298) and his nephews, gunther et al. (1627) are welcomed by the town.
(21:1296-8 26:1627-9) Map: D4



Rhine
Rhein [G.]; Rîn [MHG];

The Rhine River, upon which Worms sits.
(132 times ) Map: B1-C4



Rhone
Rhone, die [G.]; Rôten [MHG];

The Rhone river of France. Merely used in the expression"from the Rhone to the Rhine".
(20:1244) Map: (A5)



Saxon land
Sachsen Land [G.]; Sahsen [MHG];

Domain governed by Liudeger. Saxony of the past was Denmark's neighbor to the South (i.e., included the Elbe river basin including the current Holstein) [?].
(4:140) Map: D2-C1



Spain
Spanien [G.]; Spânje [MHG];

Walther of Spain's place of origin.
(28:1756, 97) Map: —



Spessart (wood)
Spessart [G.]; Spehtsharte [MHG];

Forest to which Hagen claimed he had mistakenly sent the wine provisions for the hunt (967). Spessart lies some 40 to 50 mi. east of Worms, which is rather far for a day trip of hunting.
(16:967) Map: C3(see enlarged view)



Speyer
Speyer [G.]; Spîre [MHG];

The Priest from Speyer prays for the protection of the Burgond party, which included himself (1508); the priest is later tossed off the ferryboat into the Danube by Hagen (thus spared of the grisly fate ahead.)
(25:1508) Map: B3



Swabia
Schwaben [G.]; Swâben; [MHG];

Place to where Gernot provided men to accompnay Swemmel and Werbel on their return trip. A duchy southwest of Bavaria.
(24:1493) Map: C4


Schwanfeld
Swanfield
Schwanfeld [G.]; Swalevelde [MHG];

Land passed through by the Burgonds. From East Frankenland, they passed thorough Swanfield (1525), reaching the banks of Donau in Bavaria. "Swanfield" (MHG."Swanevelde") is the ancient province of"Sualafeld" between the Rezat and the Danube. Map: C3(south) Another candidate is Schwanfeld, a town along the Main River, between Schweinfurt and Würzburg (Map: C3(north)).
(25:1525)



Thuringia
Thüringen [G.]; Düringen(4), Düringe(1) [MHG];

Irnfrit's place of origin.
(22:1345, 31:1877-8, 35:2031,2068,2074 ) Map: C2-D2



Traisem
Traisen [G.]; Treisem [MHG];

River that Kriemhild comes across (1331), on its banks is the castle of Zeisenmauer(aka Treisenmure), where Etzel's first queen Helca once dwelt. Kriemhild's party tarried here to await the welcoming party of the Huns.
(21:1331-2) Map: — Map: (E4)



Traun
Traun [G.]; Trûne [MHG];

A river of Upper Austria, forty-four miles southeast of Linz
(21:1304) Map: (E4)


Kirchheim
Troneg,
Tronje [G.]; Tronege [MHG];

Domain governed by Hagen. "Tronje" in modern German translation. * One theory is that it is a town formerly called Tronia in Alsace, now called Kirchheim[F-67520] in Department of Bas-Rhin, Alsace region of France (22 km due west of Strasbourg) (Map: B3). Another is that it is Thalfang [D-54424], about 20km east of Trier. (Map: B2(south edge)) Either one is about a 100 mile trip from Worms.
(1:9,etc. , 73 times )


Tulln
Tulna
Tulln [G.]; Tulne [MHG];

It is the modern Tulln, a walled town of Lower Austria, seventeen miles northwest of Vienna on the Danube. Here Kriemhild saw such customs as never seen before (1341). Her party continues on to Vienna.
(22:1341) Map: E4



Vergen
Vergen [G.]; Vergen [MHG];

City on the Danube, now Pforing(Pförring), which Kriemhild's party passes. The name of the town (Fergen in mod. Germ) means"ferryman", as there once used to be a ferry service. (cf. Else's ferryman is called MHG."Elsen verge").
(21:1291) Map: D3(southwest corner)



Vienna
Wien [G.]; Wiene [MHG];

City(MHG. stat) in Austria. Rudeger, who goes west with the marriage proposal for his King Etzel to marry Kriemhild passes here (1162) to reach his domain, Bechlaren. Kriemhild's party bound eastward also reaches the city after Tulln (1361) and spends 17 days of Whitsuntide(Easter) (MHG. pfinxtac G. Pfingsten)(1365) , heading for Heimburg on the 18th day. (1375).
(20:1162,64; 22:1361-75) Map: E4



Vosges forest [OMACL], Odenwald [Everyman's]
Waskenwald/Odenwald [G.]; Waskenwalt [MHG];

Place where the Burgond party went out to hunt and where Siegrfried was treacherously stabbed by Hagen's spear. In Ms. B, stanza 911, it is Waskewald, which would be the Vosges forest in what is now France. ( Map: B4-B3) In Ms. C., it is Odenwald ( Map: B3-C3). [*Since the hunt supposedly took place on the opposite bank of the Rhine from Worms, Odenwald would be more consistent with that geographical tidbit.]
(15:911) Map: —



Waskstone
Waskenstein [G.]; Waskensteine [MHG];

Famed location where Walther of Spain once took on a host of Burgund men single-handedly. Hildebrand ridicules Hagen for having"sat on the shield" to spectate as his comrades were cut down (2344). [* But Hagen's reluctance to fight may be out of friendship, since they both spent their youths as hostages at Etzel's court. ]
(39:2344) Map: B4-B3



Worms
Worms [G.]; Wormez, Wormze [MHG];

The captial of the Burgunds. It is on the left bank of the Rhine.
(1:6, etc., 31 times ) Map: C3 (see magnified view also)
→Burgundy


In earlier Roman times (B.C.), the town had been called Borbetomagus indicating Celtic orgin. But before Caesar's reign, the town was occupied by a Germanic tribe called the Vangiones. During the times of the migrations of the Germanic peoples, Rome purged the town (then called "Augusta Vangiorum" or "Civitas Vangonium" ? ) of the these inhabitants, and in 412-3 invested the Burgonds (under king Gundicarius, i.e., Gunther. In 436 the city and the Burgonds was met with destruction by the Huns.


Xanten
Xanten [G.]; Santen [MHG];

Captial of the Netherlands, the kingdom of Prince Siegfried(2:20). A coronation of Siegfried and Kriemhild took place here (11:708). [* The city is now part of Germany: Xanten in the Province of Nordrhein-Westphalia]
(2:20, 11:708) Map: C3



Zeisenmauer
Zeiselmauer [G.]; Zeizenmûre [MHG];

Castle on the banks of the Treisen River, formerly the residence of Etzel's first queen Helca. Kriemhild's party stayed here for four days (1336). It is about 6 miles east of Tulne/Tulln. Today, it is about a 15-20 mile trip along the Danube from here toVienna (which lies to the southeast). Map: — [*The Iwanami Japanese translation uses Treysenmure, the spelling found in ms. C.]
(21:1332, 22:1336) Map: E4


List of Tribes and Nationalities

Amelung
Amelung [G.]; Amelunge [MHG];

A Visigothic tribe [?], to whom Dietrich and his men belong.
(28:1721)



Berne.. (Lord of Berne, those of Berne, etc.)
Bern(e) [G.]; Bernaere [MHG];

Those of Berne, i.e., the men serving Dietrich von Berne.
(31:1903,38:2312; 38:2273, )



Denmark
Dänemark [G.]; Tenemarken [MHG];

In the first half, the men serving under Liudegast (Adv. 4). In the latter half, it referst to Hawart, Iring, and others (Adv. 35)
(4:, 35:)



Greeks
Griechen [G.]; Kriechen [MHG];

A tribe who attended the wedding of Etzel and Kriemhild.
(22:1339)



Huns
Hunnen [G.]; Hiune [MHG];

The tribe of men ruled by Etzel.
(95 times )



Nibelungs
Nibelungen [G.]; Nibelunge(n) [MHG];

In the first half, a royal family of dwarfs (the princes Nibelung and Schilbung). Their nation is called Norway (739). The title is passed on to whichever king inherits the Nibleungen treasure-hoard, thus in the latter half, Gunther, Gernot, and Giselher are called by the name.
(3:87-,12:739)



Petschenegers
Petscheneger [G.]; Petschenaere [MHG];

Turkish tribe that originally dwelt to the north of the Caspian. By conquest they acquired a kingdom extending from the Don to Transylvania.
(22:1340)



Poles
Polen [G.]; Poelân [MHG];

A Polish contingent attended Etzel and Kriemhild's wedding.
(22:1339)



Russians
Russen [G.]; Riuzen [MHG];

Tribe of men who attended to Etzel and Kriemhild's wedding. In MHG poetry, Ortnit's uncle is Ylias of "Ruizen"(Russia).
(22:1339)



Troneg (, men of)
Tronjer(nen?) [G.]; Tronegaere [MHG];

In plural form, the men of Tronege, the domain governed by Hagen. These men are strongly averse to serving under two lords and thus decline to relinquish their fealty to Gunther and serve Kriemhild directly (699). "The man of Tronege" refers to Hagen himself (1560).
(4:234, 11:699 25:1560)



Acknowledgments/Links

· Iwanami Library Red 401-1(First Half) , 2(Latter Half). tr. Morimine Sagara.
This was used for the Japanese html. Endnotes were also consulted.
· MHDBDB (Middle High German Conceptual Database)
I fetched the Middle High German proper names using fetch queries on this database. The dataset thus obtained is the basis of this page, and it was an indispensable tool in preparing it.
· Bibliotheca Augstana 's E-text of Manuscript C
There are a number of interesting discrepancies vs. Manuscript B, which is most often used as the base text of translations.

· Miss Aki Okazawa's Myth & Saga wing [Annex No. 2] has a Nibelungenlied section
[Japanese] It includes a summary, cast of characters, a MAP of the story, and illustrations of the knights and damsels of the story.

·Mr. Syugo Asakura's Nibelungenlied reading notes.
[Japanese] Though geographical data isn't here, it houses a complete list of characters.
· OMACL Translation by Daniel B. Shumway (1909)
A prose translation. The footnotes on this e-text are valuable in ascertaining the geography. Many remarks coincide with the Iwanami (Japanese translation).
· Everyman' Library version - tr. by Margaret Armour (432K PDF) (First Printing: 1908)
Another prose translation of quite a different flavor.
· reiseplanung
(Travel plan and map)
Travel planner for Europe, in German. Shows routes, distances, and MAPS.
· Civic Heraldry
For this page, I have displayed reduced-scale images (rather big to be called thumbnails perhaps) standardizes to the height of 96 pixels. The majority of the heraldic images were obtained from this Civic Heraldry page, which is pretty complete on German cities. For other cities, located in Hungary, Austria, etc. were obtained at various places, such as Flags of the World and the administrative sites of the municipality or township, tourism bureaus, personal webpages, etc. As a rule of thumb, I have hotlinked the"thumbnails" to the places where I got them.
    A nice site called the aeiou cultural information system for Austria was where I downloaded the Wappen (coat-of-arms) for Eferding and Melk, but these images had copyright indications, so I drew a vector graphic of them and recreated the pictures for these. As for the city of Metz, its device of a half-black, half-white escutcheon was a bit too plain, so again I created a color vector drawing based on a blazon (coat-of-arms) shown on a 1945 French postage stamp.

· Martyn Rady's "Recollecting Attila"
and Crying Voice site's "God Terrifies Attila the Hun, AD 452 "
, etc., provided information on Attila and Etzelburg.