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Thirteen Treasures of Birtain (given in Charlotte Guest's Notes to Mabinogion):

* The "basket" in the tale has oft been theorized as one of the prototypes for the Grail.

Tri Thlws ar Ddeg Ynys Prydain

The Thirteen Treasures of Britain

NOTES TO KILHWCH AND OLWEN
THE BASKET OF GWYDDNEU GARANHIR — PAGE 283.
    THIS marvellous basket is reckoned amongst the thirteen precious things of the Island of Britain.   In the following catalogue of these treasures, which is copied from an old MS. in the collection of Mr. Justice Bosanquet, its properties are, however, made to differ slightly from those assigned to it by Yspaddaden.
{Rachel Bromwich's translation, in her Welsh Triads book}

1. White-Hilt, the Sword of Rhydderch the Generous:
2. Mwys Gwyddno Garanir: The Hamper of Gwyddno Long-Shank:
3. Korn Bran Galed o'r Gogledd : The Horn of Bran the Niggard from the North:
4. Kar Morgan Mwynfawr: The Chariot of Morgan the Wealthy:
5. Kebystr Klydno Eiddin: The Halter of Clydno Eiddyn:
6. Kyllell Llawfrodedd Farchog: The Knife of Llawfrodedd the Horseman:
7. Pair Dyrnwch Gawr: The Cauldron of Dyrnwch the Giant:
8. Hogalen Tudwal Tutklyd: The Whetstone of Tudwal Tudglyd:
9. Pais Badarn Beisrydd: The Coat of Padarn Red-Coat:
10. 11. Gren a desgyl Rhygenydd Ysgolhaig: The Crock and the Dish of Rhygenydd the Cleric:
12. Gwyddbwyll Gwenddoleu ap Ceidio: The Chessboard of Gwenddolau son of Ceidio:
13. Llen Arthyr yng Nghernyw:

"Tri Thlws ar Ddeg Ynys Prydain"
1.   Dyrnwyn gleddyf Rhydderch hael, os tynnai ddyn namyn ef i hvn, ef a ennynai yn fflam oi Groes hyd i flaen, a ffawb ar ai harchai ef ai kae, ac oblegid y gyneddf honno hwy ai gwrthodynt: ac am hyny y gelwid ef Rhydderch hael.
2.   Mwys Gwyddno garanir, bwyd i vn gwr a roid ynddo a bwyd i ganwr a gaid ynddo pan egorid.
3.   Korn bran galed, y ddiod a ddamvnid i bod ynddo a gaid ynddo.
4.   Kar mor gan mwynfar od ai ddy'n ynddo, damvnai i fod lle mynnai ac ef a fyddai yn ebrwydd.
5.   Kebystr Klydno eiddvn a oedd mewn y stwffwl îs drae i wely eddvnai y march a fynnai ynno ef ai kae.
6.   Kyllell llawfrodded farchog, yr honn a wasnaethai ir pedwar gwyr ar hugain i fwyta ar fort i gilydd.
7.   Pair Tyrnog pe rhoid ynddo gig i wr llwfr i ferwi ni ferwai fyth, o rhoid ynddo gig i'wr dewr berwi a wnai yn ebrwydd.
8.   Ogalen Tvdwal tvdklvd o hogai wr dewr i gleddyf arni od en­waedai ar wr, marw fyddai ac os hogai w'r llwfyr ni byddai waeth.
9.   pais Badarn beisrvdd os gwisgai wr bonheddig kymhessur fyddai iddo, ar os Iangwr nid ai am dano.
10.   11.   gren a desgyl Rhegynydd ysgolhaig eiddvnid ynddvnt y bwyd a fynid ef ai kaid.
12.   Gwyddbwll gwenddolen o gosodid y werin hwyn archwar­yent i hvnain: Avr oedd y klawr ar arian oedd y gwyr.
13.   Llenn Arthvr a fai dani nis gwelai neb ef ac ef a welai bawb."



1.   Dyrnwyn the sword of Rhydderch Hael; if any man drew it except himself, it burst into a flame from the cross to the point, and all who asked it received it; but because of this property all shunned it; and therefore was he called Rhydderch Hael.
2.   The basket of Gwyddno Garanhir; if food for one man were put into it, when opened it would be found to contain food for one hundred.
3.   The horn of Bran Galed; what liquor soever was desired was found therein.
4.   The chariot of Morgan Mwynvawr; whoever sat in it would be immediately wheresoever he wished.
5.   The halter of Clydno Eiddyn, which was in a staple below the feet of his bed; and whatever horse he wished for in it, he would find it there.
6.   The knife of Llawfrodded Farchawg; which would serve four and twenty men at meat all at once.
7. The cauldron of Tyrnog; if meat were put in it to boil for a c oward it would never be boiled, but if meat were put in it for a brave man it would be boiled forthwith.
8. The whetstone of Tudwal Tudclud; if the sword of a brave man were sharpened thereon, and any one were wounded therewith, he would be sure to die, but if it were that of a coward that was sharpened on it, he would be none the worse.
9.   The garment of Padarn Beisrudd; if a man of gentle birth put it on, it suited him well, but if a churl it would not fit him.
10. 11. The pan and the platter of Rhegynydd Ysgolhaig; whatever food was required was found therein.
12.  The chessboard of Gwenddolen; when the men were placed upon it, they would play of themselves. The chessboard was of gold, and the men of silver.
13. The mantle of Arthur; whosoever was beneath it could see everything, while no one could see him.
This version is rather different from that given by Jones, in his Welsh Bards *, which omits the halter of Clydno Eiddyn, but adds the mantle of Tegau Eurvron, which would only fit such ladies as were perfectly correct in their conduct, and the ring of Luned, by which she effected the release of Owain the son of Urien, as has al­ready been seen in the story of the Lady of the Fountain; whoever concealed the stone of this ring became invisible. Gwyddno Garanhir, the possessor of the basket, was the Prince of Cantref y Gwaelod, which was overflowed by the sea. This event will be detailed hereafter in the notes to another Mabinogi, where it is more particularly referred to.

* Jones's Welsh Bards, II. p.47

 

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Versions of the 13 Treasures Text

The Welsh text was transcribed and translated by Lady Charlotte Guest in her "Notes to Kilhwch and Olwen" in her edition of the Mabinogion, Vol. II (ed. 1844) pp. 353-4.
[* The Welsh text has been left out in sacred-texts.com's e-text of Notes to The Basket of Gwyddneu Garnahir from the 1877 edition (with different paging).]

Rachel Bromwich, the translator of the triads gives a slightly different rendition entitled Tri Thlws ar Ddeg Ynys Prydain -- The Names of the Thirteen Treasures of the Island of Britain, which were in the North: in her book, Trioedd Ynys Prydein: The Welsh Triads (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1961.)

Also, "Jones' Welsh Bards" referred in the notes is: Jones, Edward 1752-1824, Musical and Poetical Relicks of The Welsh Bards (The Bardic Museum 1784; 1794; 1802), where the treasures are referred to as "Thirteen Rarities of Kingly Regalia (of the Island of Britain)" (cf. Child, vol. I, part II, p.265, commentary on Ballad #29 Boy and the Mantle)
* Most of Jones' works has some kind of musical connection, and this title too is a book on harp music. Thus a Chicago based Lyon & Healy Harps offers a reprint for sale Item #703780-500. $40.00; Thorn Books apparently is offering the second and third edition as a set for sale, price $3000. But an eBay seller "mottlecar" was offering the first edition of 1784 for AU$400 (about US$300).

As for the manuscript which Guest saw, its owner "Mr. Justice Bosanquet" apparently refers to Samuel Richard Bosanquet, Esq. of Dingestow Court, Monmouthshire, J.P.(justice of the peace) and D.L. (Deputy Lieutenant) for County Monmouth and author of A New System of Logic, etc., listed in Annals and antiquities of the counties and county families of Wales, p.772

Basket vs. Grail

The "basket" (also "hamper," "pannier," "budget," or "weel" depending on the commentator) of Gwyddneu Garan-hir bynamed "Long-Shanks" or "Long Crane (bird)" is an item Celtic scholars take to be one of the Celtic precursors to the Grail of Arthurian lore.
(See John Rhys, Studies in the Arthurian Legend [Books.Google], Ch. XIII where the "basket" (Gwyđno's Mwys) one composite element of the proto-Grail. Some elements aret also taken from the cauldron of the Lord of the Otherworld (Welsh Pen Annwfn, whom Rhys calls the "Head of Hades"). The cauldron was one of the "Spoils of Annwfn" retrieved by Arthur according to Poem XXX: Preiddu Annwn (Eng. The Spoils of Annwn, or, The Raid on Annwfn) in The Book of Taliesin.

Obviously, the Welsh word mwys "basket" does not sound anything like "grail" phonetically. But Arthur C. L. Brown The Origin of the Grail Legend, Ch. XV explores the possibility that the Irish Celtic word criol "basket" may have evolved into "graal".
He has not found ample evidence that a cognate of this word was very current in Welsh or Breton, though he cites an instance of capsa = "clior, cistan, prennol, prenfol" in John Davies' Dictionary (1632).
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